Computing “Substantial Equal Periodic Payment”

Posted on Friday, September 21, 2012

Taxpayers who wish to withdraw funds from a retirement account such as an IRA before they reach the age of 59 and a half, can do so without their distributions becoming subject to the additional 10 percent tax but only if certain carefully-defined rules are followed. One option is to have distributions made in substantially equal periodic payments, as outlined in Sec. 72(t) of the IRC. Taxpayers can use one of three methods to calculate these substantially equal payments:

(1) Required minimum distribution method. Under this method, a taxpayer divides the retirement account's principal by the appropriate number on the IRS's life expectancy table for the year in which distributions will begin. That number depends upon the taxpayer's age. Payment amounts will be predetermined each year by dividing the remaining principal by the number corresponding to the taxpayer's age. Note: Although this method of computation is much simpler than the second and third, it results in lower annual distributions. The length of time, however, over which the distributions are made is generally greater than for the amortization and annuitization methods.

(2) Fixed amortization method. Under the amortization method, the annual amount of payments is fixed at the time the first payment is made. The amount of the annual distribution is determined by amortizing the taxpayer's account balance using the appropriate reasonable interest rate released by the IRS over a number of years, which equals the life expectancy of the account owner.

(3) Fixed annuitization method. As with the amortization method, all resulting annual payments remain the same for each succeeding year. The amount of the payments is determined by dividing the account principal by the appropriate annuity factor, which is based on the IRS's mortality table and an interest rate of not more than 120% of the federal mid-term rate.

Payments made calculated through the annuitization method are generally the highest. Taxpayers electing to use this method should be aware that higher annual payments will more quickly exhaust their principal. So long as the distribution payment scheme remains unmodified for a five year period beginning from the first payment date, the distributions will not be subject to the additional 10 percent tax.

For further information on whether this option might make sense for you or a family member, please contact our office.

Posted in Tax And Accounting Topics For Business

Disclaimer: The information contained in Dulin, Ward & DeWald’s blog is provided for general educational purposes only and should not be construed as financial or legal advice on any subject matter. Before taking any action based on this information, we strongly encourage you to consult competent legal, accounting or other professional advice about your specific situation. Questions on blog posts may be submitted to your DWD representative.

"Carrie does an excellent job every year presenting the audit to the Board of Directors.  She clearly communicates relevant information and action items we can take as a Board.  Through her…"

Heather Schoegler, Board Member of Ronald McDonald House